HISTORY OF PROCUREMENT

History

Prior to 1900, purchasing was recognized as an independent function by many railroad organizations, but not in most other industries.

Prior to World War I, purchasing was regarded as primarily clerical.

During World War I & II – The function increased due to the importance of obtaining raw materials, supplies, and services needed to keep the factories and mines operating.

1950s & 1960s – Purchasing continued to gain stature as the techniques for performing the function became more refined and as the number of trained professionals increased. The emphasis became more managerial. With introduction of major public bodies and intergovernmental organizations, such as United Nations, procurement becomes a well-recognized science.

1970s & 1980s – More emphasis was placed on purchasing strategy as the ability to obtain needed items from suppliers at realistic prices increased.

1983 – In September 1983, Harvard Business Review published a ground-breaking article by Peter Kraljic on purchasing strategy that is widely cited today as the beginning of the transformation of the function from “purchasing,” something that is viewed as highly tactical to procurement or supply management, something that is viewed as very strategic to the business.

1990s – Procurement starts to become more integrated into the overall corporate strategy and a broad-based transformation of the business function is ignited, fueled strongly by the development of supply management software solutions which help automate the source-to-settle process.

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FUNGSI MANAJEMEN

 

Fungsi Manajemen : Perencanaan, Pengorganisasian, Pelaksanaan, Pengendalian

Dalam Manajemen terdapat fungsi-fungsi manajemen yang terkait erat di dalamnya. Pada umumnya ada empat (4) fungsi manajemen yang banyak dikenal masyarakat yaitu fungsi perencanaan (Planning), fungsi pengorganisasian (Organizing), fungsi pelaksanaan (Actuating) dan fungsi pengendalian (Controlling).

Untuk fungsi pengorganisasian terdapat pula fungsi staffing (pembentukan staf). Para manajer dalam organisasi perusahaan bisnis diharapkan mampu menguasai semua fungsi manajemen yang ada untuk mendapatkan hasil manajemen yang maksimal.

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SEJARAH TEKNIK INDUSTRI

 

SEJARAH TEKNIK INDUSTRI

Awal mula Teknik Industri dapat ditelusuri dari beberapa sumber berbeda. Frederick Winslow Taylor sering ditetapkan sebagai Bapak Teknik Industri meskipun seluruh gagasannya tidak asli. Beberapa risalah terdahulu mungkin telah mempengaruhi perkembangan Teknik Industri seperti risalah The Wealth of Nations karya Adam Smith, dipublikasikan tahun 1776; Essay on Population karya Thomas Malthus dipublikasikan tahun 1798; Principles of Political Economy and Taxation karya David Ricardo, dipublikasikan tahun 1817; dan Principles of Political Economy karya John Stuart Mill, dipublikasikan tahun 1848. Seluruh hasil karya ini mengilhami penjelasan paham Liberal Klasik mengenai kesuksesan dan keterbatas dari Revolusi Industri. Adam Smith adalah ekonom yang terkenal pada zamannya. “Economic Science” adalah frasa untuk menggambarkan bidang ini di Inggris sebelum industrialisasi America muncul .

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